the simile in lines 21 22 primarily serves to illustrate
———. Within this repeated structure a series of Greek heroes draws the spotlight, each for a brief moment while the design of the similes emphasizes the temporary effectiveness of these characters in their individual scenes. As Sarpedon falls he receives two similes: he is likened to a tree that men in the mountains fell to be a ship’s timber and to a bull who is killed by a lion in the midst of the herd (482 and 487). The scene is a peaceful harvest time in the country—a significant lessening of the warlike tone in the earlier similes describing the Greeks, especially Diomedes. The necessary foundation for a study of individual similes in the poems is the establishment of possible alternatives to similes—repeated suggestions that rise from a tradition developed and transmitted by poets prior to the period in which Homer created his two large epics. A. Hampe, R. 1952. In these books the theme is important both in the structure of the individual book and in its contribution to the greater plan of the poem. This name is Odysseus’ first gift from his grandfather, a birthright that the Odyssey illustrates in many ways, most. Only in book 6 does he seem to react to these strange events in insisting that he will not fight Glaucus if he is a god because such activity is risky (6.128–41). 113. This scene, built on an exchange between gods who support opposed sides, is appropriate for a moment when Diomedes is on the verge of a series of strong acts that will turn the battle in favor of the Greeks; in addition, it emphasizes the constant interplay between gods and mortals that is the major theme of the book. At the book’s opening it is important to celebrate Agamemnon, who strives to be a leader and hero in order to reinvigorate a situation that has been disintegrating since the end of the previous day (book 8); his fighting is successful enough to overcome recollection of his despairing words at the beginning of book 9. . notably in the attack on the Cicones, in the raid on the Cyclops’ cave, and in his continual baiting of the suitors. See also Moulton 1981:1–8 and Edwards 1991 on 17.132–36. And, of equal importance, this ongoing tradition had been implanting itself continuously in the minds of the audience. In defense of her theory I must admit that the very similes she cites as primary evidence do not seem to be derived from similemes that are any more comprehensive than the ones presented in this study. First, though there are other similes in which alternatives are offered as comparisons, here Agamemnon is simultaneously likened to three different divinities.30 Second, while heroes are commonly compared to a specific god, they are never said to be like that god in regard to a particular physical feature. Phoenix 43: 283–93. ———. Not all commentators elevate Hector to the level that I have suggested. In view of this continuing theme it seems more faithful to the developing text to acknowledge that the situation of the attackers in this simile is precarious. Göttingen. There are similes that suggest a sound even though no words directly express it; see the earlier discussion of the simile at 2.394. The similes in Homer are treasure troves. The movement toward Achilles continues in the repeated structure in the fifth unit (543–714), the final struggle for Patroclus’ body.64 The scene begins as usual with a statement that the battle was drawn taut over his corpse. Books 13, 17, and 16 are largely battle books. In form short similes often share the same formulaic beginning as extended ones, since long similes are usually phrased as a series of motifs that are added to the initial brief statement of the subject. Narrators and Focalizers: The Presentation of the Story in the Iliad. Homer’s Iliad: The Shield of Memory. This division of the book is echoed by the differing poetic strategies in each part. The motifs or elements in each simileme are listed across the top of each chart. He begins the book yearning to escape the dominating nymph Calypso and ends it having passed through a series of tests, still clinging to life, yet not for a minute renouncing the crucial choice that is the fixed point from which all the later episodes of the epic arise. See also Homeric similes, Stanley, K., 10, 12, 220n89, 222n115, 227n39, Star similes, 32–33, 73, 74, 105, 106, 221n95, Theme: direct focus on single theme in Iliad book 12, 94–102; Homeric similes for narrative theme delineation, 94–129; parallel similemes to create unified, in Iliad book 5, 102–12; thematic similes in Odyssey book 5, 118–26, Tree similes: analysis of occurrences in Iliad and Odyssey, 204; for Asios’ death, 140, 178–79; chart, 204; complementary and contradictory components of, 25; connote death, 108; directions they do not take, 182; for Imbrius’ death, 136, 177–78; for Leontius and Polypoetes, 97, 101; narrative contexts of, 26–27; oak tree as most common, 244n11; for Sarpedon’s fall, 162–63, 170, 179; as simile family, 22–23; for twins killed by Aeneas, 180; woodcutter simile and, 27–28, Type scenes, 16, 26, 40, 145–55, 174, 182, Typical actions, similes to interpret, 112–18, Unified theme, parallel similemes to create, 102–12, Wave similes: analysis of occurrences in Iliad and Odyssey, 200–201; in army mustering scenes, 45; for battle scenes, 184, 186; chart, 200–201; for gathering of Greek army in Iliad book 2, 45–46, 60; as simile family, 28, Weapons, similes for describing gleam of, 32–33, Wind similes: analysis of occurrences in Iliad and Odyssey, 200–201; in army mustering scenes, 45; for attacking warriors, 108, 137–38, 184; chart, 200–201; as continuing subject in Iliad book 12, 100–101; deleting and adding motifs to, 210n20; for gathering of Greek army in Iliad book 2, 45–47, 60; for Greeks in Iliad book 17, 152; for Hector, 84, 85, 96, 101; for Menelaus, 147; in Odyssey book 5, 122, 233n109; as simile family, 22, 28; for Trojan fighting, 135, 143; in wounding scenes, 93; Zeus sends wind from Mt. In the next unit (284–596). 11. This peacefulness is underlined later, when the subject is continued at 162 to include two horses rounding a turning post on a racetrack.94 Star similes occur at 26 and 317. 10.124), caught on a hook (Iliad 16.406), or cowering in terror before a larger predatory fish (Iliad 21.22). Poseidon renders the spear cast by Adamas harmless, and the simile at 564 stresses the action of a god in human affairs rather than the killing of a warrior. In the final unit the need for Hector as the Trojan leader is emphasized when the fire simile is repeated from the first unit (688, cf. Dimock, G. 1989. For discussion on the role of the shepherd see Webster 1960:231–32. Not only does it focus on pictorial features; it also carries meanings that have been derived from previous performances and are conveyed by the poet as the latest version of the larger picture he is painting. 2. Nicolai 1973:100–101; Fenik 1986:5–21; Hainsworth 1970 and 1993:212; and Stanley 1993:128–36. 74. Patroclus is described by a simile appropriate to a warrior, a hawk pursuing daws and starlings (582).106 Hector withdraws before his charge with a simile describing the length of a javelin throw and identifying it as an activity suited to either peace or war (589).107 It might seem that the battle between Patroclus and Hector is imminent, but this expectation is rapidly dissipated by fights among other heroes with vaunts and boasts, slayings of minor warriors, and futilely cast weapons. These similes present Patroclus as less of a warrior than his comrades. Each scene occupies a position in an ongoing narrative that calls for a certain tone and argumentative style.


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